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INFORMATION ON THE TYPES OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS…

What is Irrigation?

Irrigation is the replacement or supplementation of rainwater with another source of water. The main idea behind irrigation systems is that your lawns and plants are maintained with the minimum amount of water required.

TYPES OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

Ditch Irrigation

Ditch Irrigation Ditch Irrigation is a rather traditional method, where ditches are dug out and seedlings are planted in rows. The plantings are watered by placing canals or furrows in between the rows of plants. Siphon tubes are used to move the water from the main ditch to the canals. This system of irrigation was once very popular in the USA, but most have been replaced with modern systems.

Terraced Irrigation

This is a very labor-intensive method of irrigation where the land is cut into steps and supported by retaining walls. The flat areas are used for planting and the idea is that the water flows down each step, while watering each plot. This allows steep land to be used for planting crops.   

Terraced Irrigation

Drip Irrigation

Drip Irrigation

This is known as the most water efficient method of irrigation. Water drops right near the root zone of a plant in a dripping motion. If the system is installed properly you can steadily reduce the loss of water through evaporation and runoff.

Sprinkler System

This is an irrigation system based on overhead sprinklers, sprays or guns, installed on permanent risers. You can also have the system buried underground and the sprinklers rise up when water pressure rises, which is a popular irrigation system for use on golf courses and parks.
Sprinkler System

Rotary Systems

Rotary System This method of irrigation is best suited for larger areas, for the sprinklers can reach distances of up to 100 feet. The word “Rotary” is indicative of the mechanical driven sprinklers moving in a circular motion, hence reaching greater distances. This system waters a larger area with small amounts of water over a longer period of time.

Center Pivot Irrigation

This is a form of overhead irrigation. Steel or aluminum pipes are joined together, supported by trusses, mounted on wheeled towers. The sprinklers are situated on the length of the tower and they move in a circular motion.
Center Pivot Irrigation

  

Some irrigation methods

Irrigation is the controlled application of water for agricultural purposes through manmade systems to supply water requirements not satisfied by rainfall. Crop irrigation is vital throughout the world in order to provide the world’s ever-growing populations with enough food. Many different irrigation methods are used worldwide, including:

  • Center-Pivot: Automated sprinkler irrigation achieved by automatically rotating the sprinkler pipe or boom, supplying water to the sprinkler heads or nozzles, as a radius from the center of the field to be irrigated. Water is delivered to the center or pivot point of the system. The pipe is supported above the crop by towers at fixed spacing’s and propelled by pneumatic, mechanical, hydraulic, or electric power on wheels or skids in fixed circular paths at uniform angular speeds. Water is applied at a uniform rate by progressive increase of nozzle size from the pivot to the end of the line. The depth of water applied is determined by the rate of travel of the system. Single units are ordinarily about 1,250 to 1,300 feet long and irrigate about a 130-acre circular area.
  • Drip: A planned irrigation system in which water is applied directly to the Root Zone of plants by means of applicators (orifices, emitters, porous tubing, perforated pipe, etc.) operated under low pressure with the applicators being placed either on or below the surface of the ground.
  • Flood: The application of irrigation water where the entire surface of the soil is covered by ponded water.
  • Furrow: A partial surface flooding method of irrigation normally used with clean-tilled crops where water is applied in furrows or rows of sufficient capacity to contain the designed irrigation system.
  • Gravity: Irrigation in which the water is not pumped but flows and is distributed by gravity.
  • Rotation: A system by which irrigators receive an allotted quantity of water, not a continuous rate, but at stated intervals.
  • Sprinkler: A planned irrigation system in which water is applied by means of perforated pipes or nozzles operated under pressure so as to form a spray pattern.
  • Sub irrigation: Applying irrigation water below the ground surface either by raising the water table within or near the root zone or by using a buried perforated or porous pipe system that discharges directly into the root zone.
  • Traveling Gun: Sprinkler irrigation system consisting of a single large nozzle that rotates and is self-propelled. The name refers to the fact that the base is on wheels and can be moved by the irrigator or affixed to a guide wire.
  • Supplemental: Irrigation to ensure increased crop production in areas where rainfall normally supplies most of the moisture needed.
  • Surface: Irrigation where the soil surface is used as a conduit, as in furrow and border irrigation as opposed to sprinkler irrigation or sub irrigation.

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